Agricultural Interview Questions
Question 1. What Is The Agreement On Agriculture?
The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) got here into drive on 1 January 1995 and introduced not solely all fundamental agricultural merchandise but additionally the merchandise derived from them below multilateral guidelines and commitments. Also included are wines, spirits, tobacco merchandise, fibres equivalent to cotton, wool and silk and uncooked animal skins for leather-based manufacturing. Fish and fish merchandise are usually not included; nor are forestry merchandise.
The AoA prescribes guidelines within the areas of market entry (tariffs and tariff charge quotas), home help (manufacturing associated subsidies) and export competitors (export subsidies, export credit score and worldwide meals support). These three parts are generally known as the “pillars” of agricultural commerce reform. The commitments of member nations in every of the three “pillars” are contained of their particular person schedules. The commitments had been carried out over a interval of 6 years by developed nations and 10 years by growing nations ranging from 1995.
Question 2. Does The Wto Determine The Customs Tariffs On Import Of Agricultural Products?
Customs tariff is the responsibility charged on the import of any good into the home territory of a rustic. WTO Member nations are anticipated to “bind” their customs tariffs, in different phrases, they’re anticipated to inform the ceiling charges of tariffs. The tariffs which are literally imposed by the Customs authorities on imports into a rustic are the utilized customs tariffs. Each Member is free to set the utilized customs tariffs. The solely restriction is that the utilized tariff of the Member on an agricultural product can not exceed the certain customs tariff on the product.
For instance, the “bound” customs responsibility on wheat notified to the WTO by India on the finish of the Uruguay Round is 70%. Customs responsibility on wheat imposed by India can not due to this fact be elevated past 70%.
Question 3. Rules For Multilateral Trade In Agricultural Products Were Already In Place At The End Of The Uruguay Round. What Is The Purpose Of The Agricultural Negotiations Under The Doha Round?
Negotiations within the Doha Round are aimed toward establishing a good and market-oriented buying and selling system by a program of basic reform encompassing strengthened guidelines and particular commitments on help and safety with the intention to right and forestall restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets. These targets are to be realized by substantial enhancements in market entry for agricultural merchandise; discount and eventual phasing out of all types of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting home help.
Thus, whereas the AoA is the primary multilateral settlement for introducing disciplines in respect of agricultural commerce, the Doha negotiations are aimed toward additional reducing subsidies that distort agricultural markets and decreasing boundaries to market entry.
Question 4. Can We Use Non-tariff Measures On Imports Of Agricultural Products?
Market entry points dealt by the AoA are restricted to tariffs and tariff charge quotas. Before the Uruguay Round, some agricultural imports had been ruled by varied types of quotas and different non-tariff measures (NTMs). These measures have been transformed into their tariff equivalents, i.e. they supply more-or-less equal ranges of safety as did the NTMs. Conversion of the quotas and different forms of NTMs into tariffs is known as “tariffication”. The AoA prohibits the usage of non-tariff measures which can be completely for agricultural merchandise. It successfully implies that tariffs are usually the one border safety measure allowed. However, members can resort to non-tariff measures below the balance-of-payments provisions and different non-agriculture particular provisions of GATT 1994 and different multilateral commerce agreements that are relevant to normal commerce in items (industrial or agricultural).
Question 5. Was India Required To Cut Its Tariffs On Agricultural Products As A Result Of The Uruguay Round Of Agriculture Negotiations?
Uruguay Round contributors agreed that developed nations would minimize their dedicated certain tariffs by a median of 36%, in equal steps over six years. Developing nations needed to cut back their certain tariffs by 24% in 10 years.
Several growing nations like India used the choice of providing ceiling tariff charges reasonably than tariffication. India opted to take action as a result of it was sustaining quantitative restrictions on account of Balance of Payment issues, which had been eradicated in March 2001.
At the top of the Uruguay Round, India had certain its tariffs on most objects, at 100% for main merchandise, 150% for processed merchandise and 300% for edible oils. Bound tariffs on some merchandise (comprising about 119 tariff strains) had been decrease since they had been traditionally certain at a decrease degree within the earlier Rounds of multilateral commerce negotiations.
Subsequently, nevertheless, negotiations had been carried out below GATT Article XXVIII and the binding ranges had been revised upwards in December 1999 on 15 tariff strains together with skimmed milk powder, spelt wheat, paddy, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, rape, colza and mustard oil, recent grapes and many others.
Question 6. How Are Subsidies Provided To Farmers Of Any Concern To The Wto?
The purpose why it was thought-about mandatory to cut back and self-discipline home help insurance policies that help home costs, or subsidize manufacturing in another manner, is that they encourage over-production. This squeezes out imports or results in export subsidies and low-priced dumping on world markets.
Question 7. Are Subsidies To Farmers Completely Prohibited Under The Aoa?
No. The AoA distinguishes between help programmes that stimulate manufacturing instantly, and people which can be thought-about to don’t have any direct impact. Subsidies which can be within the nature of programmes having direct results on manufacturing and commerce, known as the “Amber Box”, need to be decreased. In the terminology utilized by the AoA, these subsidies are referred to as “aggregate measurement of support” or “AMS”. Developed nations had been required to cut back their AMS as current throughout 1986-88 (the “base period”) by 20% over six years beginning in 1995. Developing nations needed to cut back their AMS by 13.3% unfold over a 10-year interval. Least-developed nations weren’t required to make any cuts.
Question 8. Did India Have To Reduce Subsidies Provided To Its Farmers As A Consequence Of The Uruguay Round Negotiations?
India was not required to cut back any of the subsidies given to its farmers. This is as a result of India’s whole AMS was properly under the ceiling prescribed within the AoA.
Moreover, growing nations have been supplied three further exemptions, particularly,
funding subsidies that are usually accessible to agriculture;
agricultural enter subsidies usually accessible to low-income or resource-poor producers; and
home help to producers to encourage diversification from rising illicit narcotic crops.
Question 9. Are Subsidies On Exports Of Agricultural Products Permitted?
The AoA prohibits export subsidies except the subsidies are laid out in a member’s schedule of commitments. Where they’re listed, the settlement requires WTO members to chop each the quantity of money they spend on export subsidies and the portions of exports that obtain subsidies. Taking averages for 1986-90 as the bottom degree, developed nations agreed to chop the worth of export subsidies by 36% over six years and growing nations by 24% over ten years beginning in 1995. Developed nations additionally agreed to cut back the portions of backed exports by 21% over the six years (14% over 10 years for growing nations). Least-developed nations weren’t required to make any cuts. During the six-year implementation interval, growing nations had been allowed below sure circumstances to make use of subsidies to cut back the prices of marketing and transporting for exports.
Question 10. What Are Modalities?
Negotiating Groups have been constituted within the WTO on every facet of the negotiations. From time to time, based mostly on the views expressed by the WTO Members, the Chairs of those Groups deliver out draft modalities containing proposals that may assist understand the targets of the negotiations. In the agriculture negotiations, the draft modalities embrace formulation and different strategies for use to cut back tariffs and agricultural subsidies. The Chair of the Negotiating Group on Agriculture introduced out Draft Modalities on Agriculture on 17 July 2007 ; 1 and based mostly on the multilateral discussions, introduced out additional revised draft variations on 8 February , 19 May and 10 July 2008 . The revised draft textual content of 10 July 2008 fashioned the idea of dialogue throughout the Mini-Ministerial assembly of the WTO in Geneva in July 2008. A fourth revised draft model was issued on 6 December 2008.
Question 11. Which Are The Main Coalition Groups In The Agriculture Negotiations? Is India A Member Of Any Coalition?
The most important coalition teams within the agriculture negotiations are the G-20, the G-10, the G-33, the Cairns Group, the African Group, the African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) Group and the Cotton-4 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali). Other groupings embrace the group of small and susceptible economies (SVEs), Least developed nations (LDCs) and the Tropical Products group. India is a member of the G-20 and G-33 coalition teams. The G-20, led by Brazil, is a coalition of growing nations urgent for bold reforms of agriculture in developed nations with some flexibility for growing nations. The G-33, led by Indonesia, is spearheading the growing nation effort to reach at passable modalities on Special Products and the Special Safeguard Mechanism as supplied for within the mandate of the Doha Round. These two measures are important elements of the particular and differential therapy provisions for growing nations.
Question 12. How Will Agricultural Tariffs Be Reduced In The Doha Round?
There are two most important parts available in the market entry modalities which can be on the desk:
Band-wise tariff reductions; and
Flexibilities or deviations from the prescribed tariff reductions for use by members (developed and growing) to deal with their particular wants.
Tariffs are proposed to be minimize in line with a system, which prescribes steeper cuts on larger tariffs. These reductions are to be created from certain charges.
Question 13. Will Tariffs On All Agricultural Products Be Cut As A Result Of The Doha Round Negotiations?
The mandate of the Doha Round supplies for flexibilities or deviations from the prescribed tariff reductions for use by members (each developed and growing) to deal with their particular wants.
Question 14. Will India Continue To Have Adequate Policy Space To Raise Tariffs On Agricultural Products Even After The Doha Round?
The tariff cuts to be taken by growing nations can be moderated by 4 flexibilities which can be constructed into the mandate of the Doha Round:
Developing nations are required to undertake not more than a most general common minimize of 36%. If the band-wise cuts described above result in an general common minimize larger than 36%, they’ll take a decrease minimize proportionately throughout bands to maintain inside 36%. A easy slotting of India’s tariffs into the suitable tariff band and the relevant minimize, ends in an general common minimize of round 41%. So, we will reduce the cuts by the identical think about every band in order that the general common minimize is not more than 36%.
Question 15. How Will India Protect The Interests Of Its Poor And Vulnerable Farmers?
The Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration of December 2005 supplies that growing nation members would have the pliability to self-designate an applicable variety of tariff strains as “Special Products” (SPs) guided by indicators based mostly on the factors of meals safety, livelihood safety and rural improvement. This is a particular and differential therapy provision that permits growing nations some flexibility within the tariff cuts that they’re required to make on these merchandise.
Question 16. Will The List Of Products To Be Designated As Sps Be Decided In The Negotiations?
No, Special Products can be self-designated, that’s, as soon as the modalities are finalised, the growing nation Member will resolve which of its merchandise it desires to designate as SPs. Once that is determined, the record can be notified to the WTO as a part of the Member’s schedule of commitments below the Doha Round.
In India’s case, the record of SPs can be determined by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, the Department of Commerce and different businesses involved in session with State Governments.
Question 17. Will Developed Countries Be Allowed To Shield Some Of Their Agricultural Products From Full Tariff Cuts?
Members (each developed and growing) might designate an applicable variety of tariff strains to be handled as delicate, on which they’d undertake decrease tariff cuts. Even for these merchandise, nevertheless, there must be “substantial improvement” in market entry, and so the smaller cuts must be offset by tariff charge quotas, thus enhancing the chances of market entry. According to the draft modalities of 6 December 2008, developed nations can designate 4% of tariff strains as delicate merchandise; for members with greater than 30% of their tariff strains within the prime tariff band (75+band), a better entitlement of 6% is proposed.
Developing nations can designate one-third extra (5.3% or 8%) of merchandise, as Sensitive Products. Almost 35% of India’s agriculture tariff strains are within the prime band of 130+ and due to this fact, the delicate product entitlement can be 8%. In different phrases, India would have the pliability to take decrease cuts than would in any other case be required below the tariff discount system on 8% strains, utilizing one of many choices for growing nations that don’t require provision of entry by tariff quotas.
Question 18. Would Developing Countries Also Be Required To Provide Tariff Rate Quota Access To Compensate For The Lower Cuts On Their Sensitive Products?
For growing nations the quota enlargement is two-thirds of the quantities for developed nations, and home consumption doesn’t embrace subsistence farmers’ consumption of their very own produce.
Instead of providing tariff charge quotas, growing nation Members can take the total system cuts on all their Sensitive Products however over an implementation interval three years longer than regular
Question 19. Did India Use The Special Safeguard Provisions Available In The Agreement On Agriculture? Will Developing Countries Have Recourse To Any Emergency Safeguard Measures In The Doha Round?
The AoA allowed Members to take particular emergency actions (“special safeguards” by the use of imposition of a further tariff) within the case of merchandise whose non-tariff restrictions had been transformed to tariffs, with the intention to forestall swiftly falling costs or surges in imports from hurting their farmers. The proper to take action was reserved by 38 members and for a restricted variety of merchandise in every case. India was not entitled to take action as a result of it exercised the choice of binding its tariffs as a substitute of “tariffication” of quantitative restrictions (on account of stability of funds issues).
Question 20. Will Members Continue To Have Recourse To The Special Safeguard (ssg) After The Doha Round?
In the Doha Round, the controversy has been about whether or not to eradicate the SSG, or cut back the variety of merchandise for which it may be invoked and to constrain it. The G-20 has all the time maintained that it is a transitional instrument and ought to be eradicated on the earliest. The EC, Switzerland, Japan and Norway need the SSG to proceed.
The Chair’s 6 December 2008 textual content proposed that on the primary day of implementation, developed nation Members would scale back the variety of strains eligible for the SSG to 1% of scheduled tariff strains and eradicate the SSG no later by the top of the seventh yr of implementation.
For growing nation Members the SSG protection can be decreased to not more than 2.5% of tariff strains on the primary day of implementation. For Small and Vulnerable Economies (SVEs) the SSG protection shall be decreased to not more than 5 per cent of strains over 12 years.
Question 21. Have Solutions Been Found To The Ssm Issues That Became Contentious During The July Mini-ministerial Meeting?
Negotiations on these points started first informally in September 2008 after which within the WTO’s Agriculture Negotiating Group from October 2008. This continued until early December however options continued to elude the negotiators.
In the 6 December 2008 model of the draft modalities, the Chair has left the part on SSM untouched. However, he has given his solutions for a attainable answer to the above UR certain drawback in a separate paper (TN/AG/W/7) additionally introduced out on 6 December 2008.
Question 22. Apart From Caps On The Overall Trade-distorting Support, Are Caps Proposed On The Support For Individual Products As Well?
Yes, this Round additionally seeks to put limits on subsidies on the degree of merchandise, with the intention to keep away from shifting help between completely different merchandise. For nations apart from the US, the ceiling or most degree can be the typical help really supplied throughout the Uruguay Round implementation interval (1995-2000). The calculation for the US can be based mostly on whole Amber Box help for particular merchandise per yr for that interval however shared amongst merchandise in line with the typical share through the years 1995-2004. Another particular dispensation, implicitly for the US, is that they’ll start with a cap that’s 30% larger than the scheduled limits.
Question 23. Will The De Minimis Levels Of Support Permissible Also Be Reduced In This Round? Will This Lead To India Having To Reduce Any Of Its Subsidies For Its Farmers?
De minimis help additionally must be decreased within the Doha Round, with particular therapy for growing nations. Developed nations are to chop by 50% from day one (i.e. cap at 2.5% of the worth of manufacturing, from the present 5%). Developing nations with Amber Box commitments are required to chop de minimis by two-thirds of the developed nation cuts (from the present 10% of the worth of manufacturing, i.e., ending up with about 6.7% of the worth of manufacturing). Developing nations, like India, with no AMS commitments is not going to be required to chop de minimis help.
Question 24. What About Disciplines On The Non Trade Distorting Or Green Box Support Measures?
The Doha Round mandate envisaged a evaluate of the factors for outlining help as “Green Box” help and to permit efficient protection of programmes of growing nations that trigger not more than minimal trade-distortion. The draft modalities embrace proposals to tighten standards for developed nations and attainable revision of circumstances for growing nations’ meals stockpiling purchases from low-income farmers or these with few assets, at costs which can be larger than the market.
Question 25. What Are Allied Activities?
Dairy farming, poultry, sheep rearing, acquaculture are just a few examples.
Question 26. What Types Of Crops Are Generally Grown In India?
Generally we will classify as brief length and lengthy length crops. Short length means usually lower than a yr and the others will prolong past twelve months.
Question 27. What Is Green Revolution?
It referes to a collection of analysis and improvement and utility of expertise and different initiatives for elevated agricultural manufacturing.
Question 28. In General What Are The Methods To Increase Agricultural Production? And Also The Conditions?
Rotation of crops, irrigation amenities, weather conditions, soil texture and following newest strategies in farming together with utility of expertise.
Question 29. What Is Irrigation?
Irrigation is synthetic utility of-water to the land or soil for rising crops, upkeep of land scapes and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas throughout the instances of scanty rainfall.
Question 30. Ow Irrigation Facilities Are Classified In Our Country, In Terms Of Ayacut?
Minor, medium and main irrigation. In phrases of ayacut it’s upto 1000 acres, 1000 to 10,000 acres and above 10.000 acres respectively.